COMMENCEMENT OF PLAY
- A. Face-down Opening Lead
After a bid, double or redouble has been followed by three passes in
rotation, the defender on presumed declarer's left makes the opening
lead face down . The face-down lead may be withdrawn only upon
instruction of the Director after an irregularity (see Law 47E2); the withdrawn card must be returned to the defender's
- B. Review of Auction and Questions
Before the opening lead is faced, the leader's partner and the
presumed declarer each may require a review of the auction, or request
explanation of an opponent's call (see Law 20).
Declarer or either defender may, at his first turn to play a card,
require a review of the auction; this right expires when he plays a
card. The defenders (subject to Law 16) and the
declarer retain the right to request explanations throughout the play
period, each at his own turn to play.
- C. Opening Lead Faced
Following this question period, the opening lead is faced, the play
period begins, and dummy's hand is spread. After it is too late to
have previous calls restated (see B, above), declarer or either
defender, at his own turn to play, is entitled to be informed as to
what the contract is and whether, but not by whom, it was doubled or
- D. Dummy's Hand
After the opening lead is faced, dummy spreads his hand in front of
him on the table, face up, sorted into suits, the cards in order of
rank, in columns pointing lengthwise towards declarer, with trumps to
dummy's right. Declarer plays both his hand and that of dummy.
organizations may specify that opening leads be made face up.
- A. Absolute Rights
- 1. Give Information
Dummy is entitled to give information, in the Director's presence, as to fact or law.
- 2. Keep Track of Tricks
He may keep count of tricks won and lost.
- 3. Play as Declarer's Agent
He plays the cards of the dummy as declarer's agent as directed (see Law 45F if dummy
suggests a play).
- B. Qualified Rights
Dummy may exercise other rights subject to the limitations provided in Law 43.
- 1. Revoke Inquiries
Dummy may ask declarer (but not a defender) when he has failed to follow suit to a trick
whether he has a card of the suit led.
- 2. Attempt to Prevent Irregularity
He may try to prevent any irregularity by declarer.
- 3. Draw Attention to Irregularity
He may draw attention to any irregularity, but only after play of the hand is concluded.
Except as specified in Law 42
- A. Limitations on Dummy
- 1. General Limitations
- (a) Calling the Director
Unless attention has been drawn to an irregularity by another player, dummy should not initiate a call for the Director during play.
- (b) Calling Attention to Irregularity
Dummy may not call attention to an irregularity during play.
- (c) Participate in or Comment on Play
Dummy must not participate in the play, nor may he communicate anything about the play to declarer.
- 2. Limitations Carrying Specific Penalty
- (a) Exchanging Hands
Dummy may not exchange hands with declarer.
- (b) Leave Seat to Watch Declarer
Dummy may not leave his seat to watch declarer's play of the hand.
- (c) Look at Defender's Hand
Dummy may not, on his own initiative, look at the face of a card in either defender's hand.
- B. Penalties for Violation
- 1. General Penalties
Dummy is liable to penalty under Law 90 for any violation of the limitations listed in A1 or A2 preceding.
- 2. Specific Penalties
If dummy, after violation of the limitations listed in A2 preceding:
- (a) Warns Declarer on Lead
warns declarer not to lead from the wrong hand, (penalty) either defender may choose the
hand from which declarer shall lead.
- (b) Asks Declarer about Possible Irregularity
is the first to ask declarer if a play from declarer's hand constitutes a revoke, declarer must substitute a correct card if his play was illegal, and the
penalty provisions of Law 64 apply as if the revoke had been established.
- 3. Draws Attention to Defender's Irregularity
- If dummy, after violation of the limitations listed in A2 preceding is the first to draw attention to a defender's irregularity, no penalty shall be imposed. If the defenders benefit directly through their irregularity, the Director shall award an adjusted score to both sides to restore equity.
SEQUENCE AND PROCEDURE OF PLAY
- A. Lead to a Trick
The player who leads to a trick may play any card in his hand (unless he is subject to
restriction after an irregularity committed by his side).
- B. Subsequent Plays to a Trick
After the lead, each other player in turn plays a card, and the four cards so played constitute a
trick. (For the method of playing cards and arranging tricks see Law 65.)
- C. Requirement to Follow Suit
In playing to a trick, each player must follow suit if possible. This obligation takes precedence
over all other requirements of these Laws.
- D. Inability to Follow Suit
If unable to follow suit, a player may play any card (unless he is subject to restriction after an
irregularity committed by his side).
- E. Tricks Containing Trumps
A trick containing a trump is won by the player who has contributed to it the highest trump.
- F. Tricks Not Containing Trumps
A trick that does not contain a trump is won by the player who has contributed to it the
highest card of the suit led.
- G. Lead to Tricks Subsequent to First Trick
The player who has won the trick leads to the next trick.
- A. Play of Card from a Hand
Each player except dummy plays a card by detaching it from his hand and facing it on the
table immediately before him.
- B. Play of Card from Dummy
Declarer plays a card from dummy by naming the card, after which dummy picks up the card
and faces it on the table. In playing from dummy's hand declarer may, if necessary, pick up
the desired card himself.
- C. Compulsory Play of Card
- 1. Defender's Card
A defender's card held so that it is possible for his partner to see its face must be played to the
current trick (if the defender has already made a legal play to the current trick, see Law 45E).
- 2. Declarer's Card
Declarer must play a card from his hand held face up, touching or nearly touching the table,
or maintained in such a position as to indicate that it has been played.
- 3. Dummy's Card
A card in the dummy must be played if it has been deliberately touched by declarer except for
the purpose of arranging dummy's cards, or of reaching a card above or below the card or
- 4. Named or Designated Card
- (a) Play of Named Card
A card must be played if a player names or otherwise designates it as
the card he proposed to play.
- (b) Correction of Inadvertent Designation
A player may, without penalty, change an inadvertent designation if he does so without
pause for thought; but if an opponent has, in turn, played a card that was legal before the
change in designation, that opponent may withdraw without penalty the card so played and
substitute another (see Law 47E).
- 5. Penalty Card
A penalty card, major or minor, may have to be played, subject to Law 50.
- D. Card Misplayed by Dummy
If dummy places in the played position a card that declarer did not name, the card must be
withdrawn if attention is drawn to it before each side has played to the next trick, and a
defender may withdraw (without penalty) a card played after the error but before attention
was drawn to it; if declarer's RHO changes his play, declarer may
withdraw a card he had subsequently played to that trick
(see Law 16C2).
- E. Fifth Card Played to Trick
- 1. By a Defender
A fifth card contributed to a trick by a defender becomes a penalty card, subject to Law 50,
unless the Director deems that it was led, in which case Law 53 or Law 56 applies.
- 2. By Declarer
When declarer contributes a fifth card to a trick from his own hand or dummy, there is no
penalty unless the Director deems that it was led, in which case Law 55 applies.
- F. Dummy Indicates Card
After dummy's hand is faced, dummy may not touch or indicate any card
(except for purpose of arrangement) without instruction from
declarer. If he does so, the Director should be summoned
forthwith. The Director shall rule whether dummy's act did in fact
constitute a suggestion to declarer. When the Director judges that it
did, he allows play to continue, reserving his right to assign an
adjusted score if the defenders were damaged by the play so suggested.
- G. Turning the Trick
No player should turn his card face down until all four players have played to the trick.
The opening lead
is first made face down (unless the sponsoring organization directs
INCOMPLETE OR ERRONEOUS CALL OF CARD FROM DUMMY
- A. Proper Form for Designating Dummy's Card
When calling a card to be played from dummy, declarer should clearly state both the suit and
the rank of the desired card.
- B. Incomplete or Erroneous Call
In case of an incomplete or erroneous call by declarer of the card to be played from dummy,
the following restrictions apply (except when declarer's different intention is
- 1. Incomplete Designation of Rank
If declarer, in playing from dummy, calls ``high'', or words of like import, he is deemed to have
called the highest card; in fourth seat he may be deemed to have called for the lowest winning card of the suit indicated; if he directs dummy to win the trick, he is deemed
to have called the lowest winning card; if he calls ``low'', or words of like import, he is deemed
to have called the lowest.
- 2. Designates Suit but Not Rank
If declarer designates a suit but not a rank, he is deemed to have called the lowest card of the
- 3. Designates Rank but Not Suit
If declarer designates a rank but not a suit:
- (a) In Leading
Declarer is deemed to have continued the suit in which dummy won the preceding trick,
provided there is a card of the designated rank in that suit.
- (b) All Other Cases
In all other cases, declarer must play a card from dummy of the designated rank if he can
legally do so; but if there are two or more such cards that can be legally played, declarer must
designate which is intended.
- 4. Designates Card Not in Dummy
If declarer calls a card that is not in dummy, the call is void and declarer may designate any
- 5. No Suit or Rank Designated
If declarer indicates a play without designating either a suit or rank (as by saying, ``play
anything'', or words of like import), either defender may designate the play from dummy.
RETRACTION OF CARD PLAYED
- A. To Comply with Penalty
A card once played may be withdrawn to comply with a penalty (but a defender's withdrawn
card may become a penalty card - see Law 49).
- B. To Correct an Illegal Play
A played card may be withdrawn to correct an illegal or simultaneous
play (see Law 58 for simultaneous play; and, for
defenders, see Law 49, penalty card).
- C. To Change an Inadvertent Designation
A played card may be withdrawn without penalty after a change of designation as permitted
by Law 45C4(b).
- D. Following Opponent's Change of Play
After an opponent's change of play, a played card may be withdrawn without penalty (but see
Law 62C2) to substitute another card for the one played.
- E. Change of Play Based on Misinformation
- 1. Lead out of Turn
A lead out of turn may be retracted without penalty if the leader was mistakenly informed by
an opponent that it was his turn to lead (LHO should not accept the lead).
- 2. Retraction of Play
- (a) No One Has Subsequently Played
A player may retract the card he has played because of a mistaken explanation of an opponent's call or play and before a corrected explanation, but only if no card was
subsequently played to that trick. An opening lead may not be retracted after dummy has faced any card.
- (b) One or More Subsequent Plays Made
When it is too late to correct a play, under (a) preceding, Law 40C applies.
- F. Illegal Retraction
Except as provided in A through E preceding, a card once played may not be withdrawn.
EXPOSURE OF DECLARER'S CARDS
- A. Declarer Exposes a Card
Declarer is not subject to penalty for exposing a card, and no card of declarer's or dummy's
hand ever becomes a penalty card. Declarer is not required to play any card dropped
- B. Declarer Faces Cards
- 1. After Opening Lead out of Turn
When declarer faces his cards after an opening lead out of turn, Law 54 applies.
- 2. At Any Other Time
When declarer faces his cards at any time other than immediately after an opening lead out
of turn, he may be deemed to have made a claim or concession of tricks, and Law 68 then
EXPOSURE OF A DEFENDER'S CARDS
Except in the normal course of play or application of law, when a
defender's card is in a position in which his partner could possibly
see its face, or when a defender names a card as being in his hand,
(penalty) each such card becomes a penalty
card (Law 50
); but see the footnote to Law 68
, when a defender has made a statement
concerning an uncompleted trick currently in progress.
DISPOSITION OF PENALTY CARD
A card prematurely exposed (but not led, see Law 57
) by a defender is a penalty card unless
the Director designates otherwise. The Director shall award an adjusted score, in lieu of the
rectifications below, when he deems that Law 72B1
- A. Penalty Card Remains Exposed
A penalty card must be left face up on the table immediately before
the player to whom it belongs, until an
alternate penalty has been selected.
- B. Major or Minor Penalty Card?
A single card below the rank of an honor and exposed inadvertently (as
in playing two cards to a trick, or in dropping a card accidentally)
becomes a minor penalty card. Any card of honor rank, or any card
exposed through deliberate play (as in leading out of turn, or in
revoking and then correcting), becomes a major penalty card; when one
defender has two or more penalty cards, all such cards become major
- C. Disposition of Minor Penalty Card
When a defender has a minor penalty card, he may not play any other card of the same suit
below the rank of an honor until he has first played the penalty card (however, he is entitled
to play an honor card instead). Offender's partner is not subject to lead penalty, but
information gained through seeing the penalty card is extraneous and unauthorized (see Law 16A).
- D. Disposition of Major Penalty Card
When a defender has a major penalty card, both the offender and his partner may be subject
to restriction, the offender whenever he is to play, the partner when he is to lead.
- 1. Offender to Play
A major penalty card must be played at the first legal opportunity,
whether in leading, following suit, discarding or trumping (the
requirement that offender must play the card is authorized information
for his partner; however, other information arising from facing of the
penalty card is unauthorized for partner). If a defender has two or
more penalty cards that can legally be played, declarer designates
which is to be played. The obligation to follow suit, or to comply
with a lead or play penalty, takes precedence over the obligation to
play a major penalty card, but the penalty card must still be left
face up on the table and played at the next legal opportunity.
- 2. Offender's Partner to Lead
When a defender has the lead while his partner has a major penalty card, he may not lead
until declarer has stated which of the options below is selected (if the defender leads
prematurely, he is subject to penalty under Law 49). Declarer may choose:
- (a) Require or Forbid Lead of Suit
to require the defender to lead the suit of the penalty card, or to prohibit him from
leading that suit for as long as he retains the lead (for two or more penalty cards, see Law 51);
if declarer exercises this option, the card is no longer a penalty card, and is picked up.
- (b) No Lead Restriction
not to require or prohibit a lead, in which case the defender may lead
any card; the penalty card remains a penalty card.
If the player
is unable to lead as required, see Law 59
TWO OR MORE PENALTY CARDS
- A. Offender to Play
If a defender has two or more penalty cards that can legally be played, declarer designates
which is to be played at that turn.
- B. Offender's Partner to Lead
- 1. Penalty Cards in Same Suit
- (a) Declarer Requires Lead of That Suit
When a defender has two or more penalty cards in one suit, and declarer requires the
defender's partner to lead that suit, the cards of that suit are no longer penalty cards and are
picked up; the defender may make any legal play to the trick.
- (b) Declarer Prohibits Lead of That Suit
If the declarer prohibits the lead of that suit, the defender picks up every penalty card in
that suit and may make any legal play to the trick.
- 2. Penalty Cards in More Than One Suit
- (a) Declarer Requires Lead of a Specified Suit
When a defender has penalty cards in more than one suit, declarer may require the
defender's partner to lead any suit in which the defender has a penalty card (but B1(a)
preceding then applies).
- (b) Declarer Prohibits Lead of Specified Suits
When a defender has penalty cards in more than one suit, declarer may prohibit the
defender's partner from leading one or more of such suits; but the defender then picks up every
penalty card in every suit prohibited by declarer and makes any legal play to the trick.
If the player
is unable to lead as required, see Law 59
FAILURE TO LEAD OR PLAY A PENALTY CARD
- A. Defender Fails to Play Penalty Card
When a defender fails to lead or play a penalty card as required by Law 50 , he may not,
on his own initiative, withdraw any other card he has played.
- B. Defender Plays Another Card
- 1. Play of Card Accepted
- (a) Declarer May Accept Play
If a defender has led or played another card when required by Law to play a penalty card,
declarer may accept such lead or play.
- (b) Declarer Must Accept Play
Declarer must accept such lead or play if he
has thereafter played from his own hand or dummy.
- (c) Penalty Card Remains Penalty Card
If the played card is accepted under either (a) or (b) preceding, the unplayed penalty card
remains a penalty card.
- 2. Play of Card Rejected
Declarer may require the defender to substitute the penalty card for
the card illegally played or led. Every card illegally led or played
by the defender in the course of committing the irregularity becomes a
major penalty card.
LEAD OUT OF TURN ACCEPTED
- A. Lead out of Turn Treated as Correct Lead
Any lead faced out of turn may be treated as a correct lead. It becomes a correct lead if
declarer or either defender, as the case may be, accepts it (by making a statement to that
effect), or if the player next in rotation plays to the irregular lead, but see Law 47E1. (If no acceptance
statement or play is made, the Director will require that the lead be made from the correct
- B. Wrong Defender Plays Card to Declarer's Irregular Lead
If the defender at the right of the hand from which the lead out of turn was made plays to the
irregular lead, the lead stands and Law 57 applies.
- C. Proper Lead Made Subsequent to Irregular Lead
If it was properly the turn to lead of an opponent of the player who led out of turn, that
opponent may make his proper lead to the trick of the infraction without his card being
deemed played to the irregular lead. When this occurs, the proper lead stands, and all cards
played in error to this trick may be withdrawn without penalty. (Law 16C2 applies to a defender.)
FACED OPENING LEAD OUT OF TURN
When an opening lead is faced out of of turn, and offender's partner leads face down, the Director requires the face down lead to be retracted, and the following sections apply.
- A. Declarer Spreads His Hand
After a faced opening lead out of turn, declarer may spread his hand; he becomes dummy, and
dummy becomes declarer. If declarer begins to spread his hand, and in doing so exposes one or
more cards, he must spread his entire hand.
- B. Declarer Accepts Lead
When a defender faces the opening lead out of turn declarer may accept the irregular lead as
provided in Law 53, and dummy is spread in accordance with Law 41.
- 1. Declarer Plays Second Card
The second card to the trick is played from declarer's hand.
- 2. Dummy Has Played Second Card
If declarer plays the second card to the trick from dummy, dummy's card may not be
withdrawn except to correct a revoke.
- C. Declarer Must Accept Lead
If declarer could have seen any of dummy's cards (except cards that dummy may have
exposed during the auction and that were subject to Law 24), he must accept the lead.
- D. Declarer Refuses Opening Lead
When declarer requires the defender to retract his faced opening lead out of turn, Law 56 applies.
DECLARER'S LEAD OUT OF TURN
- A. Declarer's Lead Accepted
If declarer has led out of turn from his or dummy's hand, either defender may accept the lead
as provided in Law 53, or require its retraction (after misinformation, see Law 47E1).
- B. Declarer Required to Retract Lead
- 1. Defender's Turn to Lead
If declarer has led from his or dummy's hand when it was a defender's turn to lead, and if
either defender requires him to retract such lead, declarer restores the card led in error to the
proper hand without penalty.
- 2. Lead in Declarer's Hand or Dummy's
If declarer has led from the wrong hand when it was his turn to lead from his hand or
dummy's, and if either defender requires him to retract the lead, he withdraws the card led in
error. He must lead from the correct hand.
- C. Declarer Might Obtain Information
When declarer adopts a line of play that could have been based on information obtained
through the infraction, the Director may award an adjusted score.
DEFENDER'S LEAD OUT OF TURN
When declarer requires a defender to retract his faced lead out of turn, the card illegally led
becomes a major penalty card, and Law 50D
PREMATURE LEAD OR PLAY BY DEFENDER
- A. Premature Play or Lead to Next Trick
When a defender leads to the next trick before his partner has played to the current trick, or
plays out of turn before his partner has played, (penalty) the card so led or played becomes a
penalty card, and declarer selects one of the following options. He may:
- 1. Highest Card
require offender's partner to play the highest card he holds of the suit led, or
- 2. Lowest Card
require offender's partner to play the lowest card he holds of the suit led, or
- 3. Card of Another Suit
forbid offender's partner to play a card of another suit specified by declarer.
- B. Offender's Partner Cannot Comply with Penalty
When offender's partner is unable to comply with the penalty selected by declarer, he may
play any card, as provided in Law 59.
- C. Declarer Has Played from Both Hands before Irregularity
A defender is not subject to penalty for playing before his partner if
declarer has played from both hands, or if dummy has played a card or
has illegally suggested that it be played. A singleton in dummy, or
one of cards adjacent in rank of the same suit, is not considered to
be automatically played.
SIMULTANEOUS LEADS OR PLAYS
- A. Simultaneous Plays by Two Players
A lead or play made simultaneously with another player's legal lead or play is deemed to be
subsequent to it.
- B. Simultaneous Cards from One Hand
If a player leads or plays two or more cards simultaneously:
- 1. One Card Visible
If only one card is visible, that card is played; all other cards are picked up without penalty.
- 2. More Cards Visible
If more than one card is visible, the player designates the card he proposes to play; when he is
a defender, each other card exposed becomes a penalty card (see Law 50).
- 3. After Visible Card Withdrawn
After a player withdraws a visible card, an opponent who subsequently played to that card
may withdraw his play and substitute another without penalty (see Law 16C).
- 4. Error Not Discovered
If the simultaneous play remains undiscovered until both sides have played to the next trick,
Law 67 applies.
INABILITY TO LEAD OR PLAY AS REQUIRED
A player may play any otherwise legal card if he is unable to lead or play as required to
comply with a penalty, whether because he holds no card of the required suit, or because he
has only cards of a suit he is prohibited from leading, or because he is obliged to follow suit.
PLAY AFTER AN ILLEGAL PLAY
- A. Play of Card after Irregularity
- 1. Forfeiture of Right to Penalize
A play by a member of the non-offending side after his RHO has led or played out of turn or
prematurely, and before a penalty has been assessed, forfeits the right to penalize that offense.
- 2. Irregularity Legalized
Once the right to penalize has been forfeited, the illegal play is treated as though it were in
turn (but Law 53C applies to the player whose turn it was).
- 3. Other Penalty Obligations Remain
If the offending side has a previous obligation to play a penalty card, or to comply with a lead
or play penalty, the obligation remains at future turns.
- B. Defender Plays before Required Lead by Declarer
When a defender plays a card after declarer has been required to retract his lead out of turn
from either hand, but before declarer has led from the correct hand, the defender's card
becomes a penalty card (Law 50).
- C. Play by Offending Side before Assessment of Penalty
A play by a member of the offending side before a penalty has been assessed does not affect
the rights of the opponents, and may itself be subject to penalty.
FAILURE TO FOLLOW SUIT - INQUIRIES CONCERNING A REVOKE
- A. Definition of Revoke
Failure to follow suit in accordance with Law 44 or failure to lead or play, when able, a card
or suit required by law or specified by an opponent in accordance with an agreed penalty,
constitutes a revoke (but see Law 59 when unable to comply).
- B. Right to Inquire about a Possible Revoke
Declarer may ask a defender who has failed to follow suit whether he has a card of the suit led
(but a claim of revoke does not automatically warrant inspection of quitted tricks - see Law 66C). Dummy may ask declarer (but see Law 43B2(b)). Defenders may ask declarer but, unless the zonal
organization so authorizes, not one another.
|NOTE:||The ACBL Board of Directors under the authority granted in the revised Law61B, has ruled that in ACBL sanctioned events, a defender may inquire of his partner whether he has a card of the suit led.|
CORRECTION OF A REVOKE
- A. Revoke Must Be Corrected
A player must correct his revoke if he becomes aware of the irregularity before it becomes
- B. Correcting a Revoke
To correct a revoke, the offender withdraws the card he played in revoking and follows suit
with any card.
- 1. Defender's Card
A card so withdrawn becomes a penalty card (Law 50) if it was played from a defender's
- 2. Declarer's or Dummy's Card, Defender's Faced Card
The card may be replaced without penalty if it was played from declarer's or dummy's hand ,
or if it was a defender's faced card.
- C. Subsequent Cards Played to Trick
- 1. By Non-offending Side
Each member of the non-offending side may, without penalty, withdraw any card he may
have played after the revoke but before attention was drawn to it (see Law 16C).
- 2. By Partner of Offender
After a non-offender so withdraws a card, the hand of the offending side next in rotation
may withdraw its played card, which becomes a penalty card if the player is a defender (see Law 16C).
- D. Revoke on Trick Twelve
- 1. Must be Corrected
On the twelfth trick, a revoke, even if established, must be corrected if discovered before all
four hands have been returned to the board.
- 2. Offender's Partner Had Not Played to Trick Twelve
If a revoke by a defender occurred before it was the turn of his partner to play to the twelfth
trick, and if offender's partner has cards of two suits, (penalty) offender's partner may not choose the play that could possibly have been suggested by seeing the revoke card.
to Law 43B2(b)
, when dummy has forfeited his rights. A claim of revoke does not
warrant inspection of quitted tricks except as permitted in Law 66C
ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOKE
- A. Revoke Becomes Established
A revoke becomes established:
- 1. Offending Side Leads or Plays to Next Trick
when the offender or his partner leads or plays to the following trick (any such play, legal or
illegal, establishes the revoke).
- 2. A Member of Offending Side Indicates a Lead or Play
when the offender or his partner names or otherwise designates a card to be played to the
- 3. Member of Offending Side Makes a Claim or Concession
when a member of the offending side makes or acquiesces in a claim or concession of tricks
orally or by facing his hand (or in any other fashion).
- B. Attention Is Illegally Drawn
When there has been a violation of Law 61B, the revoker must substitute a legal card and the penalty provisions of
Law 64 apply as if the revoke had been established.
- C. Revoke May Not Be Corrected
Once a revoke is established, it may no longer be corrected (except as provided in Law 62D for
a revoke on the twelfth trick), and the trick on which the revoke occurred stands as played (but see Law 43B2(b)).
PROCEDURE AFTER ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOKE
- A. Penalty Assessed
When a revoke is established:
- 1. Offending Player Won Revoke Trick
and the trick on which the revoke occurred was won by the offending player, (penalty) after
play ceases, the trick on which the revoke occurred, plus one of any subsequent tricks won by
the offending side, are transferred to the non-offending side.
- 2. Offending Player Did Not Win Revoke Trick
and the trick on which the revoke occurred was not won by the offending player, then, if the
offending side won that or any subsequent trick, (penalty) after play ceases, one trick is
transferred to the non-offending side; also, if an additional trick was subsequently won by the
offending player with a card that he could legally have played to the revoke trick, one such
trick is transferred to the non-offending side.
- B. No Penalty Assessed
The penalty for an established revoke does not apply:
- 1. Offending Side Fails to Win Revoke Trick or Subsequent Trick
if the offending side did not win either the revoke trick or any subsequent trick.
- 2. Second Revoke in Same Suit by Offender
to a subsequent revoke in the same suit by the same player.
- 3. Revoke by Failure to Play a Faced Card
if the revoke was made in failing to play any card faced on the table or belonging to a hand
faced on the table, including a card from dummy's hand.
- 4. After Non-offending Side Calls to Next Deal
if attention was first drawn to the revoke after a member of the non-offending side has made
a call on the subsequent deal.
- 5. After Round Has Ended
if attention was first drawn to the revoke after the round has ended.
- 6. Revoke on Twelfth Trick
to a revoke on the twelfth trick.
- C. Director Responsible for Equity
When, after any established revoke, including those not subject to penalty, the Director deems
that the non-offending side is insufficiently compensated by this Law for the damage caused,
he shall assign an adjusted score.
ARRANGEMENT OF TRICKS
- A. Completed Trick
When four cards have been played to a trick, each player turns his own card face down near
him on the table.
- B. Keeping Track of the Ownership of Tricks
- 1. Tricks Won
If the player's side has won the trick, the card is pointed lengthwise toward his partner.
- 2. Tricks Lost
If the opponents have won the trick, the card is pointed lengthwise toward the opponents.
- C. Orderliness
Each player arranges his own cards in an orderly overlapping row in the sequence played, so as
to permit review of the play after its completion, if necessary to determine the number of
tricks won by each side or the order in which the cards were played.
- D. Agreement on Results of Play
A player should not disturb the order of his played cards until agreement has been reached on
the number of tricks won. A player who fails to comply with the provisions of this Law
jeopardizes his right to claim ownership of doubtful tricks or to claim a revoke.
INSPECTION OF TRICKS
- A. Current Trick
So long as his side has not led or played to the next trick, declarer
or either defender may, until he has turned his own card face down on
the table, require that all cards just played to the trick be faced
for his inspection.
- B. Own Last Card
Until a card is led to the next trick, declarer or either defender may inspect, but not expose, his
own last card played.
- C. Quitted Tricks
Thereafter, until play ceases, quitted tricks may not be inspected (except at the Director's
specific instruction; for example, to verify a claim of a revoke).
- D. After the Conclusion of Play
After play ceases, the played and unplayed cards may be inspected to settle a claim of a
revoke, or of the number of tricks won or lost; but no player should handle cards other than
his own. If, after such a claim has been made, a player mixes his cards in such a manner that
the Director can no longer ascertain the facts, the Director shall rule in favor of the other
- A. Before Both Sides Play to Next Trick
When a player has omitted to play to a trick, or has played too many cards to a trick, the error
must be rectified if attention is drawn to the irregularity before a player on each side has
played to the following trick.
- 1. Player Failed to Play Card
To rectify omission to play to a trick, the offender supplies a card he can legally play.
- 2. Player Contributed Too Many Cards
To rectify the play of too many cards to a trick, Law 45E (Fifth Card Played to a Trick) or
Law 58B (Simultaneous Cards from One Hand) shall be applied.
- B. After Both Sides Play to Next Trick
After both sides have played to the following trick, when attention is drawn to a defective
trick or when the Director determines that there had been a defective trick (from the fact
that one player has too few or too many cards in his hand, and a correspondingly incorrect
number of played cards), the Director establishes which trick was defective. To rectify the
number of cards, the Director should proceed as follows.
- 1. Offender Has Too Many Cards
When the offender has failed to play a card to the defective trick, the Director shall require
him forthwith to face a card, and to place it appropriately among his played cards (this card
does not affect ownership of the trick); if
- (a) Offender Has Card of Suit Led
the offender has a card of the suit led to the defective trick, he must choose such a card to
place among his played cards, and there is no penalty;
- (b) Has No Card of Suit Led
the offender has no card of the suit led to the defective trick, he chooses any card to place
among his played cards, and (penalty) he is deemed to have revoked on the defective trick - he may be subject to the one-trick penalty of Law 64.
- 2. Offender Has Too Few Cards
When the offender has played more than one card to the defective trick, the Director inspects
the played cards and requires the offender to restore to his hand all extra cards , leaving
among the played cards the one faced in playing to the defective trick (if the Director is
unable to determine which card was faced, the offender leaves the highest of the cards that he
could legally have played to the trick). A restored card is deemed to have belonged
continuously to the offender's hand, and a failure to have played it to an earlier trick may
constitute a revoke.
should avoid, when possible, exposing a defender's played cards, but if an extra
card to be restored to a defender's hand has been exposed, it becomes a
penalty card (see Law 50
CLAIM OR CONCESSION OF TRICKS
For a statement or action to constitute a claim or concession of tricks under these Laws, it
must refer to tricks other than one currently in progress
. If it does refer to subsequent tricks:
- A. Claim Defined
Any statement to the effect that a contestant will win a specific number of tricks is a claim of
those tricks. A contestant also claims when he suggests that play be curtailed, or when he
shows his cards (unless he demonstrably did not intend to claim).
- B. Concession Defined
Any statement to the effect that a contestant will lose a specific number of tricks is a
concession of those tricks; a claim of some number of tricks is a concession of the remainder,
if any. A player concedes all the remaining tricks when he abandons his hand. Regardless of
the foregoing, if a defender attempts to concede one or more tricks and his partner
immediately objects, no concession has occurred; Law 16, Unauthorized Information, may apply, so the Director should be summoned forthwith.
- C. Clarification Required for Claim
A claim should be accompanied at once by a statement of clarification as to the order in
which cards will be played, the line of play or defense through which the claimer proposes to
win the tricks claimed.
- D. Play Ceases
After any claim or concession, play ceases. All play subsequent to a claim or concession shall
be voided by the Director. If the claim or concession is acquiesced in, Law 69 applies; if it is
disputed by any player (dummy included), the Director must be summoned immediately to
apply Law 70 or Law 71, and no action may be taken pending the Director's arrival.
If the statement or action
pertains only to the winning or losing of an uncompleted trick
currently in progress, play proceeds regularly; cards exposed or revealed by a defender do not
become penalty cards, but Law 16
, Unauthorized Information, may apply, and see Law 57A
ACQUIESCENCE IN CLAIM OR CONCESSION
- A. When Acquiescence Occurs
Acquiescence occurs when a contestant assents to an opponent's claim or concession, and
raises no objection to it before his side makes a call on a subsequent board, or before the round
ends. The board is scored as though the tricks claimed or conceded had been won or lost in
- B. Acquiescence in Claim Withdrawn
Within the correction period established in accordance with Law 79C, a contestant may
withdraw acquiescence in an opponent's claim, but only if he has acquiesced in the loss of a
trick his side has actually won, or in the loss of trick that could not, in the Director's judgement,
be lost by any normal play of the remaining cards. The board is rescored with such trick
awarded to the acquiescing side.
the purposes of Laws 69, 70, and 71, ``normal'' includes play that would be careless or
inferior for the class of player involved, but not irrational.
- A. General Objective
In ruling on a contested claim, the Director adjudicates the result of the board as equitably as
possible to both sides, but any doubtful points shall be resolved against the claimer. The
Director proceeds as follows.
- B. Clarification Statement Repeated
- 1. Require Claimer to Repeat Statement
The Director requires claimer to repeat the clarification statement he made at the time of his
- 2. Require All Hands to Be Faced
Next, the Director requires all players to put their remaining cards face up on the table.
- 3. Hear Objections
The Director then hears the opponents' objections to the claim.
- C. There Is an Outstanding Trump
When a trump remains in one of the opponents' hands, the Director shall award a trick or
tricks to the opponents if:
- 1. Failed to Mention Trump
claimer made no statement about that trump, and
- 2. Was Probably Unaware of Trump
it is at all likely that claimer at the time of his claim was unaware that a trump remained in
an opponent's hand, and
- 3. Could Lose a Trick to the Trump
a trick could be lost to that trump by any normal play.
- D. Claimer Proposes New Line of Play
The Director shall not accept from claimer any successful line of play not embraced in the
original clarification statement if there is an alternative normal line of play that would be
- E. Unstated Line of Play (Finesse or Drop)
The Director shall not accept from claimer any unstated line of play the success of which
depends upon finding one opponent rather than the other with a particular card, unless an
opponent failed to follow to the suit of that card before the claim was made, or would
subsequently fail to follow to that suit on any normal line of play; or unless failure to adopt this line of play would be irrational.
the purposes of Laws 69, 70, and 71, ``normal'' includes play that would be careless or
inferior for the class of player involved, but not irrational.
A concession must stand, once made, except that within the correction period established in accordance with Law 79C
, the Director shall cancel a concession
- A. Trick Cannot be Lost
if a player has conceded a trick his side had, in fact, won, or a trick his side could not have lost
by any legal play of the remaining cards.
- B. Contract Already Fulfilled or Defeated
if declarer has conceded defeat of a contract he had already fulfilled, or a defender has
conceded fulfillment of a contract his side had already defeated.
- C. Implausible Concession
if a player has conceded a trick that cannot be lost by any normal play of the remaining cards.
Until the conceding side makes a call on a subsequent board, or until
the round ends, the Director shall cancel the concession of a trick
that could not have been lost by any normal play of the remaining
the purposes of Laws 69, 70, and 71, ``normal'' includes play
that would be careless or inferior for the class of player involved,
but not irrational.
Chapters: I - Definitions
II - Preliminaries
III - Preparation and Progression
IV - General Laws Governing Irregularities
V - The Auction
VI - The Play
VII - Proprieties
VIII - The Score
IX - Tournament Sponsorship
X - Tournament Director
XI - Appeals
Last modified: Tue May 5 11:33:25 1998